Effective Writing

See what you can achieve by completing the Effective Writing Level.
What you can do now What you will be able to do at the end
of the Effective Writing Level
Taken from the Council of Europe’s Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.

Write clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects related to your field

Write reports passing on information or giving reasons for or against a particular point of view

Synthesise information and arguments from a number of sources

Write a report which develops an argument systematically with appropriate highlighting of significant points and relevant supporting detail.

Evaluate different ideas or solutions to a problem.

Report on complex issues, underlining the relevant salient issues

Expand and support points of view at some length with subsidiary points, reasons and relevant examples

Express your point of view at some length

Write lengthy reports on complex subjects


Have good grammatical control of a wide range of tenses and expressions, though with some noticeable mother tongue influence

Not cause misunderstandings or stress for the reader if you make any grammatical errors

Consistently maintain a high degree of grammatical control

Make very few grammatical errors that are difficult to spot


Use enough words to be able to give clear descriptions and express viewpoints relating to your field and to general topics

Vary sentence formulations to avoid repetition

Not cause misunderstandings if you make any mistakes in word choice

Use a wide range of words and expressions to express yourself in an appropriate style on professional topics

Confidently overcome any gaps in your knowledge with circumlocutions

Not make any major vocabulary errors

Spelling and Punctuation

Correctly spell most commonly used words (although there may be some signs of mother-tongue influence)

Use a range of punctuation marks (although you may not always use them correctly)

Correctly spell most words (although slight errors may occur)

Use a wide range of punctuation marks (although some slight errors may occur)


Use a limited number of cohesive devices to link your ideas together (although some errors may occur)

Express yourself confidently, clearly and politely in a formal or informal register, appropriate to the situation and person(s) concerned.

Use organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices effectively

Write clear, well-structured, and detailed texts

Emphasise the most important issues in your writing

Select a writing style that is appropriate for the reader


Use standard layout and paragraphing conventions with confidence

Use layout and paragraphing that is consistently helpful for your reader

Business English Writing Skills

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